Issue 2, 2006


* * * Разграничително литературознание (програма)

Елена Налбантова, Идеологът Раковски и неговият експеримент "Хиндистан"
Elena Nalbantova, The ideologist Rakovski and his experiment "Hindistan"


The current essay introduces representative points of view towards the relation between The European and The Bulgarian for the period 1762-1865. The first part of the paper is focused on the work done by Paisii, Sofronii, N. Bozveli, and V. Aprilov; the second part presents the Rakovski's attempt to rewrite the established concept about cultural metropolis and cultural "colonies". The leading role in Paisii's works is his effort to contradict Bulgarians to the other peoples, as the Bulgarian merits are emphasized. During the first decades of 19th century (Sofronii, N. Bozveli, etc.) begins the real constructing of the Bulgarian stereotype of Europe, which is thought as attractive, but frustrating social and cultural model. V. Aprilov introduces new point of view, which spares the Bulgarian self-confidence by limiting the competition within the framework of the Slavonic Orthodox community. He also rearranges the civilizing paradigm and put the Bulgarian in the "classical" Slavonic beginning. Further, Rakovski, trained at the Greek Enlightenment tradition, copies its matrix of forming a national identity. On the other hand, using the achievements of the contemporary humanitarian science, he strives for proving that the beginning of the Hellenistic Antiquity, as well as of the (Indo-) European civilization may be searched in the Arian heritage, whose most authentic successors are the modern Bulgarians. That turns Hellas, as well as Europe into Bulgarian cultural "colonies".

Николай Аретов, Един "неочакван" образ на П. Р. Славейков. Как да се справим с него?
Nikolay Aretov, An "Unexpected" Image of P. R. Slaveykov. How to Cope with It?


The paper examines an important element of Slaveykov's path of life, which, paradoxically, allows the poet's contemporaries to see him also as a transgressor of the established morality, i.e. as a young rebel and as a man from the past, i.e. to a certain extent as an authoritative and even retrograde figure. The first part is focused on the poet's big love - Katerina, and the second one on a practically unknown text of a contemporary, in which are present both the love of Katerina and the unusual image of the "retrograde" Slaveykov, from the point of view of his younger collaborator and student Svetoslav Milarov. The paper concludes with reflections on the inconvenient texts of the past and the possible approaches to them.

As an appendix, for the first time is published in full the introduction to Memoirs from Tzarigrad's Dungeons by Svetoslav Milarov, written most probably by the author himself and saved as a manuscript.

Камен Михайлов, Следходници и предшественици: Пенчо Славейков и Христо Ботев. Критически оценки
Kamen Mikhaylov, Successors and Forerunners: Pencho Slaveykov and Botev


The paper traces three directions chosen by the author to examine the problematic relation between Pencho Slaveykov and Hristo Botev. From the viewpoint of literary history this is the first critical survey of the poet-revolutionary; furthermore, it embodies wide interpretative options - from the realistic presentation of the person and his works, to the individualistic and semantic-modernistic. That is why the author includes all existing facts preserved in Slaveykov's archive that document a certain attitude or intentions. The archive consists of notes, opinions, particular statements and plans of including Botev and his works in critical texts, as well as art projects. This whole complex is even more needed, since it corrects the prejudice established in the scholarly practice against the examined relations.

Мария Илчевска, Властта в семейството. Версии на патриархалното господство (Наблюдения върху фолклорни модели и възрожденски текстове)
Maria Ilchevska, Power and Family. Aspects of Patriarchal Authority (Observations on Folklore Models and Bulgarian Revival Literature Texts)


The text sets out to examine the transformation of folklore and mythological family patterns in the literature of the Bulgarian national revival, concentrating its interest on the way different power and leadership models intertwine throughout this process. The attention is focused on the mechanisms of authority-display, arranged on several levels of power constructions.

The first one considers family from an optimistic and utopian point of view. Family is interpreted as a hierarchical structure of subordinations which follow the model of Universal order. The conclusion is that through the sacred comprehension of marriage, through its interpretation as a secular correspondence of the sacred archetype, the matrimonial institution is accepted as an irrevocable stage of the personal development, as a compulsory element of everyone's socialization. The general perception is that relations in family are governed by love, affection, harmony and mutuality.

Observing the general line of interpreting power simultaneously as authority, influence, arresting magnetism, on the one hand, and as domination, supremacy, oppression, tyranny, control, on the other, the text unfolds the next aspect of power-roles distribution in the family. The second part concentrates on the pragmatic and realistic uses of power. The attention is focused on the problem of the split symmetry - inequality in family relations. The turns start when the sacred archetype passes through all degrees of desacralization, when authority converts into a form of property - of one person over the other. The profane aspect of the male-female relations debases the "high" concepts and degrades the elevated values to a degree of general negation.

The third part examines family as a manifestation of coercion, force, anger, violence and outrage. It turns out that the general moral standards and the noble rules of behaviour are not able to control the mighty world of savage selfishness; that culture and love are defeated and shattered by destructive instincts. The symbolic imagery of marriage is presented by a full-toned scale of evil. Family turns into a total collapse of the social contract.

Петър Велчев, Стихът на Гео Милев
Petar Velchev, Geo Milev's Verse


The present study is the first systematic elaboration of Geo Milev's verse. The all-round development of the poet is traced and divided into periods: from his earliest works (1910-1911) to his last and most brilliant work "September" (1924). For the first time the statistical data and the corresponding conclusions about the rhythm and metre, the rhyme schemes and stanzaic forms of Geo Milev's poetry are based not on representative surveys, but on a complete and specified corpus of 80 texts with 2614 lines.

On the basis of a methodology of its own, the study reveals the specificity of Geo Milev's verse, the main characteristics of which are: polymetre, echo rhyme, etc. They distinguish Geo Milev from all previous Bulgarian poets and define him as a founder of our national "vers libre". The study includes also a few tables, rhythmograms, and a chart which all could be successfully used by future researchers of Geo Milev's poetry.

Цветанка Атанасова, Прозата на Николай Лилиев
Tzvetanka Atanassova, Nikolay Liliev's Prose


The text is focused on some characteristics of Nikolay Liliev's critical-essayistic prose - its dialogue with the author's fiction and the projection of the self in it, as well as its dialogue with the French stylistic tradition. Emphasized is Liliev's role as an enlightener and spiritual mediator, as a successor and proficient interpretator of West-European Modernism. Despite their receptive-interpretative character and the collage citation of foreign authors, a number of early articles, portraits, and essays of Liliev on modern West-European writers function as manifestoes of Bulgarian Modernism. The paper also examines the critical-essayistic texts of Liliev on Bulgarian writers and underlines the author's heuristic spirit and his portraitist skills. Taken into consideration are Liliev's late academical studies on Russian and West-European classics in regard to the literary and theatrical reception of those authors in Bulgaria.

Клео Протохристова, Българската Медея - текстове, спектакли, политика и реклама
Cleo Protokhristova, The Bulgarian Medea - the Text, the Scene, the Politics, and the Advertisement


The Bulgarian reception of Euriprdes' Medea is complicated and controversial. The paper presents the discrepancies between the literary and the theatrical aspect of the reception. Special emphasis is given to the unprecedented intensity of the current stagings of the tragedy. The increasing degree of invention in that wave of recent adventurous adaptations appeares as a sort of compensation for the absence of transgressive and experimental spirit typical for the Western stage of the 1960s from the scenic reception of Medea in Bulgaria during the respective decade.

Discussed is the important role, independent from Euripides' play, which the theme plays in Bulgarian culture and society (in music, in literature, in modern ballet, in painting and artistic photography, as well as in politics and advertisement) as well as the paradox involved in the fact that the Medea figure invades the political discourse actually before the tragedy itself has been translated and staged to stay there permanently remaining impressively productive.

Олга Кациарди-Херинг, Търсене на идентичност и образът на Европа у гърците от ХVII до началото на ХIХ век
Olga Katsiardi-Hering (Athens), The Search for Identity and the Image of Europe among the Greeks from the 17th to the early 19th Century


The paper traces in detail the controversies concerning Europe among different groups of the Greek society during the examined period. The problems connected with the image of Europe among the Greeks are important for the rationalization of their notion about themselves, about the Greek identity. The first point of view is connected with the Enlightenment and lays special emphasis on the following of the European patterns, whereas the second one places in the foreground the role of the Greek (antique and Byzantine) culture in the process of the origination of the notion of Europe.

Румяна Л. Станчева, Модернизъм и танц - паралелизми между Балканите и Западна Европа
Roumiana L. Stantcheva, Modernism and Dance - Parallelism between the Balkans and Western Europe


The article analyses Modernism in the light of Dance, as a topic with a comprehensible aesthetic and philosophical meaning. The article also discusses the connection between Dance and Modernist aesthetics, stressing its individual uncommon character.

The article begins (1) with a review of the philosophical views on Dance in the 19th and 20th centuries (Nietzsche, Huizinga, Freud). This is followed by (2) Modernism and Dance as criticism of modern life, and especially the fatal woman in the writings of Schnitzler, Wilde, Matei Caragiale, Tchavdar Moutafov; (3) Dancing and Transcendent Flight - Cendrars, Ion Barbu, Geo Milev, Luan Starova; (4) The structure of novels by Anton Strashimirov, Rebreanu, Cartarescu, Mile Nedelkovski.

Румен Шивачев, Сръбско-Българската дискусия за Балканска култура във в-к "Литературен глас", 1931-1932
Roumen Shivachev, The Serbian-Bulgarian Discussion of Balkan Culture in the Literary Voice Journal (1931-1932)


The paper traces the discussion of common Balkan culture which was started by the Serbian poet Rade Drainac. It takes place on the pages of the Literary Voice Journal (1931-1932) and includes Bulgarian writers and publicists, such as Dimitar B. Mitov, L. Stoyanov, K. Konstantinov, etc. The paper comments on the important views and opinions of the participants, and underlines the fact that this is the first broad public discussion of the matters of the Serbian-Bulgarian relations and the Balkan Alliance.