Issue 2, 2004

Съдържание

Данчо Господинов, Иван Шишманов и дисциплинарната матрица на изследванията за Българското възраждане
Dancho Gospodinov, Ivan D. Shishmanov and the disciplinary matrix of Bulgarian national revival’s researches

Summary

The paper consists of analysis of Ivan Shishmanov’s approach and contribution to the exploration of the Bulgarian national revival age. The analogy between the European Renaissance and the Bulgarian national revival, deeply rooted in the disciplinary matrix of contemporary researchers, is here rejected as inappropriate. Instead, the paper suggests the processes in the Bulgarian society and culture during the 18th and the 19th century to be examined in the context of Early Modern period and to be interpreted without borrowing concepts and patterns elaborated in the researches of rather different historical material.


Росица Димчева, Приносът на проф. Иван Шишманов. Към социологията на литературата
Rossitza Dimcheva, Prof. Ivan Shishmanov’s Contribution to the Sociology of Literature

Summary

This paper is focused on the contribution of Prof. I.D.Shishmanov (1862- 1928) to the field of literary sociology. As one of the founders of the comparative history of European literature and as a reformer-builder of Bulgarian society, the famous scholar leaves valuable ideas that chronologically and conceptually precede today’s sociological and receptive theories.


Надя Данова, Иван Шишманов и националната митология
Nadia Danova, Ivan Shishmanov and the National Mythology

Summary

This paper examines Ivan Shishmanov’s contribution to the refuting of some myths inherited from the age of the Bulgarian national identity forming, when the Bulgarian intelligentsia representatives who played the leading part 201 in creating the “imagined community” constructed the national narative and built up the myths needed. Shishmanov takes up a sober position on the important issue about the role of the Greeks and the Greek culture in Bulgarian history (15th –19th century). Following the myth widespread in the Bulgarian romantic historiography of that time about the long-standing hellenizing policy towards the Bulgarians, Shishmanov reaches the conclusion that up to 1830 the Constantinople patriarchate did not function as a Greek national institute. He stresses the necessity for each phenomenon to be examined in its concrete historical context. He opposes the accusation against the Greek clergy that is has sistematically pursuited and destroyed the Bulgarian letters. He rejects the romantic thesis about the entirely negative role of the Greek culture and education for the Bulgarians and arrives at the conclusion about the positive role of the Greek cultural influence over the Bulgarian history, ranking it among the Bulgarian national revival factors. Shishmanov is convinced that we can be well acquainted with our own history only if we examine the phenomena of Bulgarian society’s spiritual life in their Balkan context, thus he convincingly refutes the romantic myth about the “uniqueness, originality, exceptionality and exclusiveness” of the nation, a myth that eliminates the search for parallels between the particular peoples’ development. Exactly on the basis of the similarity in the peoples’ development he reveals the mutual influence and borrowings in the cultural life of the Balkan peoples. Shishmanov disproves the view inhereted from the foregoing age that in the 19th century there existed tensions and conflicts connected only with opposing to “the other” on national base, since the national mythology requires the nation to be absolutely united and integrated. He is deeply convinced that myths in history can thrive only upon the ignorance for “the other” and therefore insists that it is Bulgarian school’s duty to make the Bulgarian children acquainted with the culture of the neighbouring Balkan peoples.


Стоянка Бояджиева, "Мъртвият брат" - анализи и тълкувания
Stoyanka Boyadzhieva, “The Dead Brother” – Analyses and Interpretations

Summary

The paper examines the appearance of Ivan Shishmanov’s study “The Song of Dead Brother in the Poetry of Balkan Peoples” (1896–1898) in its international and Bulgarian context. It traces out several interpretations of the dead man (brother or lover) motif, who comes back among the living people in search of his sister or beloved (“Lenore”, AT 365). The main aim of the paper is to show the continuity and accumulation of source material, and the examination of previous hypotheses, as well as the new perspectives and methods applied.


Клео Протохристова, Иван Шишманов и западноевропейските литератури – академичният проект
Cleo Protohristova, Ivan Shishmanov and the West European Literature – the Academic Project

Summary

Клео Протохристова - Иван Шишманов и западноевропейските литератури – академичният проект.


Лиляна Минкова, Каравелов-Прижов, Шишманов-Драгоманов и началото на българката украинистика
Lilyana Minkova, Karavelov-Prizhov, Shishmanov-Dragomanov and the Outset of the Ukrainian Studies in Bulgaria

Summary

The name of the great Ukrainian scholar – folklorist, literary critic and historian Mikhail Dragomanov (1841–1895) is closely connected with Bulgaria. In the last years of his life (1889–1895) he was professor at the Univesity of Sofia; his daughter Lidiya was the wife of the Bulgarian professor Ivan Shishmanov. In Ukraine Dragomanov’s works have been republished after a long suspension. The works that have come into sight so far already enable us to throw a new light on the collaboration between the first Ukrainian scholar in Bulgaria Lyuben Karavelov and the Russian folklorist and sociologist Ivan Gavrilovich Prizhov. One positive review of Prizhov’s work “Malorossia (Southern Russia) in its literary history, 9th–18th century” by Dragomanov (1869) shows the erudition of Prizhov not only as an expert in Ukrainian folklore, but also in Ukrainian literature. Nowadays it is known that Karavelov’s knowledge of Ukrainian history and literature was much wider than previously thought. The publishing of Dragomanov’s article “Shevchenko, Ukrainophiles and Socialism” (Geneva, 1879) enables us to outline the similarities and differences 203 in the interpretation of Shevchenko’s work in Dragomanov’s polemical article in question and in Shishmanov’s jubilee article “Taras Shevchenko, His Work and Its Impact on the Bulgarian writers before the Liberation” (1916).


Даниела Недялкова, “Под игото” – исторически роман
Daniela Nedyalkova, Under the Yoke – a Historical Novel

Summary

The present article is an effort to include the classical novel of the new Bulgarian literature in the tradition of historical narration. Placing Vazov’s text within the framework of the historical novel is not contradictory to all the other genre definitions the novel has had in its more than 100 year existence. The genre features of the historical novel can be found on different levels in Under the Yoke. One of the basic proofs that Vazov’s novel belongs to the genre of the classical historical novel is the presence of a historiosophical concept of the April Uprising. The comparison between Under the Yoke and Vazov’s two other novels – Svetoslav Terter and Ivan Alexander – is based on the recognition of History in the novel. The article concludes that the novel Under the Yoke can precisely be defined as historical.


Людмила Малинова, Карамфила Стефанова – в сянката на мистификацията
Lyudmila Malinova, Karamfila Stefanova – in the Shadow of Mystification

Summary

The name of the poetess Karamfila Stefanova has been more and more frequently mentioned in the last two decades. In 1874 and 1875 she published mainly poems in the press. The hypothesis constructed in this paper claims that she was not actually a woman, but a man. A hint about such a mystification is the title of a poem signed with the name of Karamfila Stefanova. The hypothesis is supported also by the fact that no personal data for such poetess or established facts of her life have been discovered. Also, no fellow- townsman of her time knew anything about her, and she was not mentioned in the memoirs of Todor Ikonomov, Sava Dobroplodni, Krastyo Mirski, Dobre Ganchev, etc. Her name was only mentioned in an unpublished paper of Anton Frangya. The analysis of the literary patterns of Karamfila Stefanova and Anton Frangya (the common themes, their preferences for genres and motifs, especially satire, the language similarities, some other features of the texts), as well as some facts of Anton Frangya’s life prove that there are reasons for the hypothesis that they are the same person.


Видка Николова, “Думата осъзнава своя божествен произход” Към “Песен на песните" от Теодор Траянов)
Vidka Nikolova, The Word Becomes Aware of Its Devine Origin (Towards Teodor Trayanov’s “Song of Songs”)

Summary

Teodor Trayanov’s poetical book “Song of Songs” (1923) is being examined in the deeper meaning of the history of ideas that reached the poet both in a cultural way (the innermost “inside” of the Bulgarian national culture), and in an educational way. In the chosen work the “being a poet” emerges as a centre of Solomon’s “Song of Songs” of the Old Testament, the Bulgarian prechristianity (outside the Old Testament) and the Christian ideas adopted in the Bulgarian national culture.


Юлия Йорданова, Раждането на бащата. (размишление върху “дъщерята на Йефтая”от Емануил Попдимитров)
Yulia Yordanova, The Birth of the Father (Reflection on Emanuil Popdimitrov’s “The Daughter of Jephthah”)

Summary

The paper examines the dramatic-prose work in question at two levels – once, in the context of the Old Testament version of the plot in The Book of Judges; and next on the background of the Bulgarian political history of the 1920s. At the latter level the paper suggests a few basic ideas, connected, in the first place, to the conservative position manifested by the author living in a highly revolutionary age and, secondly, to the discovery of the emancipating sociologem of the daughter who symbolically gives birth to her father. In regard to the first aspect the paper considers the possible role positions of the individual living in troubled times, and draws the attention to Emanuil Popdimitrov’s choice to describe an adaptive and socially constructive (not a reforming revolutionary) type of person, as seen in the character of the regentjudge Jephthah. In regard to the second more important aspect the paper makes a comparative analysis of the original (biblical) and the secondary (literary) versions of the plot about the daughter who rescued her father by physical exploit from disgrace and social death. In conclusion the paper emphasizes the fact that the literary text raises problems in the family identity of the person in society to a degree in which it may turn out that the woman can rehabilitate the man’s honour, and the children can produce their parents’ dignity.


Бисера Дакова, “Несвоевременната” проза на сп. "Художник"
Bisera Dakova, The “Ultimate” Prose of “Hudozhnik” Magazine

Summary

“Hudozhnik” Magazine is examined both as an entire artificial fact and according to the spirit of the critical period of 19th-20th century – the Gesamtkunstwerk. Captured here is how the spontaneous genre disruption is spread over the pages, the accent is on the aesthetic and unrepresentative prose. If poetry resembles actual philosophical and lyric standards, prose keeps its distance from the indiscreet individual norm, removing the fence of its own sensitively stereotyped decadent language. The finds in these not so talented readings do not deal just with criticism: the only mono Nietzsche hero is slightly removed by the person of the moods, of the mind status, of the so called Stimmungsmensch – the appearance of whom establishes new philosophical paradigma – the philosophy of life, die Lebensphilosophie. The sensuousness, the body, the subconscious, “it” (es) – these are categories schematically announced in the “Hudozhnik” prose since the beginning of the 20th century, i.e. in the period before the Wars. Having understood the sense and showing it like a discussion and a correction of Nietzsche’s principles famous on our territory, the prose of writers like Ivan Yotov, S.D.Chakalov and Raicho Raichev, the Homo Novus might be defined as a new tendency, anticipation of the aesthetical researches and processes of the 1920s. In fact, the finds and pathos are entirely harmonious with the European late 19th and early 20th century – the strengthening of Freud’s and Bergson’s conceptions and the destructive role against the old Nietzsche ones.


Живка Симова, Градът и Зоната – референции на фразовата метафоричност при Атанас Далчев и Гийом Аполинер
Zhivka Simova, The Town and the Zone – References to the Phrase’s Metaphorism in the Poetry of Atanas Dalchev and Gyiom Apolliner

Summary

“Hudozhnik” Magazine is examined both as an entire artificial fact and according to the spirit of the critical period of 19th-20th century – the Gesamtkunstwerk. Captured here is how the spontaneous genre disruption is spread over the pages, the accent is on the aesthetic and unrepresentative prose. If poetry resembles actual philosophical and lyric standards, prose keeps its distance from the indiscreet individual norm, removing the fence of its own sensitively stereotyped decadent language. The finds in these not so talented readings do not deal just with criticism: the only mono Nietzsche hero is slightly removed by the person of the moods, of the mind status, of the so called Stimmungsmensch – the appearance of whom establishes new philosophical paradigma – the philosophy of life, die Lebensphilosophie. The sensuousness, the body, the subconscious, “it” (es) – these are categories schematically announced in the “Hudozhnik” prose since the beginning of the 20th century, i.e. in the period before the Wars. Having understood the sense and showing it like a discussion and a correction of Nietzsche’s principles famous on our territory, the prose of writers like Ivan Yotov, S.D.Chakalov and Raicho Raichev, the Homo Novus might be defined as a new tendency, anticipation of the aesthetical researches and processes of the 1920s. In fact, the finds and pathos are entirely harmonious with the European late 19th and early 20th century – the strengthening of Freud’s and Bergson’s conceptions and the destructive role against the old Nietzsche ones.


Христина Балабанова Средна Европа и средноевропейското географско културно пространство (С оглед интерпретациите на Милан Кундера, Дьорд Конрад, Вацлав Хавел, Чеслав Милош)
Christina Balabanova, Central Europe and the Central-European Geographical-Cultural Space (In the Interpretations of M. Kundera, G. Konrad, V. Havel, Czeslaw Milosz)

Summary

The very grounds of this article is the proper actualization and multiple definition of the term Central (Middle) Europe during the 1980s and the 1990s, in terms of its geopolitical and geographical cultural space. As an opposition to Germany’s political project Mitteleuropa, in the 1980s a new mid-European concept was launched, being a historical part of the ethnic and cultural diversity of the Austrian monarchy. The authors are intellectuals from Czechoslovakia, Poland and Hungary, all of them representing nations whose cultural identity has been manipulated and threatened by the communist totalitarian regime, and to whom the ex-Danube monarchy has been a “hinterland” for a rather long historical period. The main directions of Central Europe’s cultural and geographical definitions have been illustrated in the selected essay-writings of Milan Kundera, György Conrad, Vaclav Havel, Czeslaw Milosz. To all the four authors presented it is a “spiritual, cultural and mental phenomenon”. The motives are also pointed out, being an indispensable part of their central-Europeanism. Milan Kundera historically documented these in terms of the organized political struggle of the Hungarian, Czech, Slovak and Polish peoples against the communist dictatorship (1956, 1968, and 1980). We have also taken into consideration the discussions held in the West, concerning the new Central European project and their argumentative publicity in the 1989 anthology “In Search of Central Europe”. Since the works of the above-mentioned central European intellectuals do not pursue any academic goals, this article does not aim at discussing the proposition of cultural-geographic identification of Central Europe on behalf of the present criteria of objectivity and impartiality. What is more, this issue has been largely discussed by a number of authors in the anthology mentioned. From a comparative point of view, the analysis registers the common places and language-discourse interrelation of the essayistic texts, but pays particular attention to the connotative differences and their hypostases concerning the 207 modeling of the Central European cultural identity. In other words, the term Central Europe is considered in accordance with the various national reflections. On the one hand, the texts share the character of a collective project ebbed by the urge to demonstrate national compactness purified of all inherited national contradictions and cultural conflicts and even glorified as an ideal of the European future. On the other hand, regardless of the common “Central European attitudes” of the authors of the project, the national view point (together with all accompanying mythologemes of identity), generates discrepancies that question the historical reality of the cultural integrity and geographic localization of Central Europe.


Павел Копарда Телесността, пространство на словашко-италианското междулитературно общуване
Pavol Koprda, Corporeality: The Space of Slavonic-Italian Inter-Literary Coherence

Summary

The study tries to show in an unusual way that the Slavonic-Italian interliterary fellowship does exist. It is not rooted in historical forms which appeared and spread in Middle Ages in the Dalmatian Croatian and Italian environment but in typological relations of the Italian and Slavonic literatures and cultural mentalities, in the so-called meta-historical form of fellowship. We aim to prove in three contemporary novels that the hero protects and respects his own body. He never becomes an out-of-body ghost, intellect, an ideologist of the interests of some group or an aesthet. He supervises what happens around him according to the fact if the events do not imperil his life and the integrity of his personality (which often becomes an object of godly respect). So that he can further feel good, he gets involved in social matters. Since the power of an individual is limited, it arises out of the involvement – the protection of the hero’s own life, stylistically well exploitable situations: lyrical fragility, pathos, drama, comicality, invention, realistic historicity, dominance of youngish view. But if there is a kind of Slavonic/Italian interliterary fellowship based on corporeality, it exists over styles and over literary periods, because its basis is a common cultural type which could be marked as Mediterranean/ Christian.


Йордан Люцканов Николай Гумильов: поетът пред лицето на духовната родина
Yordan Lyutzkanov, Nikolay Gumilyov: the Poet in the Face of His Spiritual Native Land

Summary

The paper examines the dialectics of the interrelations between the personality of the lyrical “I” and the person in process of its spritual native land in Nikolay Gumilyov’s lyric poetry. 208 The paper theoretically molds the mutual relations between three basic manifestations of the lyrical and of the biographical “I” of the poet, the indication of which had become a common place to criticism: 1) they both put on and put off “masks” (with certain cultural-historical meaning); 2) the biographical “I” stands at the head of the poetical movement Acmeism and its corresponding Guild of Poets social structure; 3) the complete “I” of the poet shows unfailing interest and sympathy for the Orient. The poems’ analysis confirms the fruitfulness of the suggested model and enriches it. Gumilyov’s lyric poetry lays the “arts synthesis” as an aim immanent in poetry; thus “curing” the synthesis. It premises the synesthetic image of classical art, which is different from the antique Greek or Greco-Roman one, and from the one conditioned by the dynamics of Classicism and Romanticism, “classical” and “barbarian”. In Gumilyov’s lyric poetry the culture of a spirit much different from the European spirit of the New Age is being professed (expressed as vital). The analysis dwells on the poems: “I Threw My Boring Mask Off” (1906), “I am an Iron-Clad Conquistador ” (“The Path of the Conquistadors”; 1905) and its revisions; “Iambic Pentameters” (1912-1915; “The Quiver”, 1916), “Andrey Rublyov” (“The Pyre”, 1918), “Niger” (“The Tent”, 1921); as well as on the cultural-historical and psychological meaning of the title of “The Pillar of Fire” volume of poetry (1921); other Gumilyov texts are treated here as well.